For troubleshooting the zcashd client, please see our Github wiki.


Zcash 生态系统

我如何获得 Zcash (ZEC)?

You can buy ZEC from participating online exchanges/markets with another cryptocurrency or fiat currency (depending on which exchange you use). We put together a list of exchanges supporting Zcash trades at launch here but these are just a few of the first exchanges and wallets that supported Zcash at launch. There have been many more that have come into existence. We encourage the community to host their own lists and repositories of successful providers such as in this Zcash community blog. You might also have luck finding someone to buy Zcash from in-person or offering services/products to be paid for in Zcash. And of course, you are highly encouraged to run a Zcash mining node to earn tokens for taking part in securing the decentralized network!
You can get more info on installing a node and sending ZEC in our Guide.


There are already a variety of third-party options for storing and sending ZEC, in addition to the officially supported core client, zcashd. Many of these third-party wallets have limitations in their support for Zcash; in particular including shielded addresses in a transaction requires a large amount of computer memory and most wallets (both hardware and web-based) have yet to integrate this feature.
You can browse a list we put together of third-party support at launch here. As mentioned in the above question, these are a few of the first exchanges and wallets that supported Zcash at launch. There have been many more that have come into existence. We encourage the community to host their own lists and repositories of successful providers such as in this Zcash community blog.

以 “t” 开头的地址和以 “z” 开头的地址的区别是什么?

Zcash is built upon and extends the Bitcoin protocol. Addresses which start with "t" behave exactly like Bitcoin, including their globally public properties and we refer to these as "transparent addresses". Addresses which start with "z" include the privacy enhancements provided by zero-knowledge proofs (see FAQ: what is a zero-knowledge proof?) and we refer to these as "shielded addresses". It is possible to send ZEC between these two address types.
See our blog post Anatomy of a Zcash Transaction for more details.

Zcash 是否有多重签名交易?

是的,但无关隐私性。Zcash 支持所有比特币的相同的交易类型,比如多重签名交易,但以上这些都没有任何附加隐私功能 - 他们与比特币拥有相同隐私性,例如,全球化的透明性。您可以看到起始字符分别为“t1”和“t3” 的单签和多签透明地址之间的差异。
请注意,在使用透明地址时夹入一笔交易是有可能的 - 比如:一个多重签名交易 - 在隐私Zcash交易之间。这笔交易具体可以解释为,你自己生成一个 Zcash 隐私交易,然后进行一个全球公开的透明交易 (可以是一个多重签名交易),这时拿到这笔资金的人(也许是你,也许是其他人)就可以进行另一笔自己的Zcash隐私交易。


Zcash 是由比特币协议分叉出来的,是第一个也是最广泛使用的区块链数字货币。这意味着 Zcash 维护自己的区块链和货币令牌。Zcash 建立在比特币核心团队的工作基础之上,并使用零知识证明来确保交易数据的隐私性。 (参见常问问题: 什么是零知识证明?)。还包括一些对比特币的非隐私的更改,包括工作证明算法。(参见常问问题: "从比特币的设计上改变了什么? 保留了比特币网络的哪些部分?" 来了解更多技术上差异的细节)。

What do I do if my transaction is not being mined?

After the Overwinter network upgrade, all transactions expire after ~10 minutes/20 blocks, and the best thing to do is to try your transaction again with some modifications. When your transaction expires, your funds will be returned to you.

There may be various reasons why your transaction is not included in a block:

  • Loss of connectivity
  • Transaction fee too low
  • Network overload
  • Too many transparent inputs (transaction size too large)

We suggest trying your transaction again with:

  • Try again with a better connection
  • Use the standard fee (0.0001 ZEC)
  • Try again later, or increase the fee for high priority transactions
  • Use a minimal amount of inputs to limit the size, or increase the fee for large transactions

Zcash客户端 (zcashd)

如何运行Zcash ?

To join the network, the Guide is the best place to start. Keep updated with the information we post on our blog to know the current phase and stay updated on zcashd, the core Zcash client.

有没有 Windows, Mac, Android 或 iOS 系统版本客户端?

The Zcash company has official support for only Linux. While we have no intentions to officially support other operating systems, you can keep an eye on our community forum for future third-party Windows and mobile support. Since we do not have the resources to review software we do not build ourselves, we encourage users to do due diligence on the legitimacy and safety of software built by third-parties before downloading and installing.


Check out the User Guide for instructions to install and run a node on the Zcash network. Our mining guide can assist in setting up your node to mine.

Network Upgrades

What is a network upgrade for Zcash?

These are non-backward compatible updates that require an upgrade to all Zcash full nodes and wallets. Each network upgrade has a name and associated versions. The network launched with the 1.0.x Sprout protocol. The next planned upgrades are 1.1.x Overwinter and then 2.0.x Sapling.

When is the next one happening?

The next network upgrade, Overwinter, will activate at block 347500. We maintain a countdown page for upcoming upgrades. Zcash company plans for regular network upgrades approximately two times a year.
Once the code is finalized for a network upgrade, the next release of zcashd has that block height hard-coded in. The activation date is selected to be at least 3 months after the first code release with the upgraded protocol. This means users have a 3-month window in which to update their zcashd software.

What do I need to do as a user?

If you use a third party service, such as an exchange or hosted wallet, verify with them that they support the new network upgrade.
If you use zcashd directly and you have upgraded within three months of a network upgrade, there are no further actions to take. If you issued transactions near the time of the upgrade, you may need to resubmit them.
If you use zcashd but have not upgraded within three months of a network upgrade, it will exit with an error message prior to the upgrade.
If you have set disabledeprecation in your configuration file or you are using third party software which has done so, you are in danger of splitting off from the upgrade and remaining on the old protocol.

Are my funds safe during the transition?

If your wallet has upgraded, you don’t need to do anything to 'transfer' your money. For safe keeping of funds during any version upgrade and as a general practice, we highly recommend making and keeping regular backups of your wallet.

It is best practice to stop sending transactions near the network upgrade activation height; we recommend not sending transactions an hour or so beforehand. Transactions that are not mined before the activation height will need to be resent after the upgrade.

If you have sent a transaction after the upgrade and it has not been mined, wait for the transaction to expire (the transaction expiry period is about ~10 minutes/20 blocks) and try your transaction again. For understanding various situations and responses to unmined transactions, see this question.

What if there is a critical vulnerability in the protocol?

In case a critical vulnerability is discovered in the protocol which would place user funds at risk, potentially compromise privacy, or present some other substantial danger, an emergency upgrade will be activated as quickly as safely possible. We will coordinate an emergency protocol upgrade process through our standard security announcements page.




Our mission is to create an open, global economic platform from which no-one can be excluded.
We believe that personal privacy is essential for core human values like dignity, intimacy, and ethics. Companies need privacy in order to conduct business. Privacy strengthens social ties and social institutions, enables democracy and civil political processes, protects societies against their enemies, and helps societies to be more peaceful and more prosperous.
We are a science-driven team. We are the discoverers of the underlying scientific techniques and the designers of the technology but we are not the ultimate controllers of the network — that power lies in the hands of the users. We believe in decentralization, which promotes security and fairness. Every user of Zcash is a part of the network, and helps protect it against failure and corruption.


Zcash区块链在2016 年10 月28日发布,有了第一个Zcash货币单位。软件版本和区块链的初始阶段被称为“Sprout”,以强调它是一个年轻的,新兴的区块链,具有巨大的发展潜力。
请阅读我们的 发布微博 来了解更多细节。


Zcash投资者的列表可以在 团队页面.
上看到。 Zcash以非传统方式募集资金;没有像其他类似技术公司一样明确界定“A轮”或“种子轮”。 首批公开投资者包括:Pantera Capital, Digital Currency Group, Fenbushi Capital, London Trust Media, Evolve VC, Naval Ravikant, Niraj Mehta, David Dacus, Roger Ver, Alan Fairless, Ben Davenport, Brian Cartmell, James Nicholas, Jonathan Perlow, Charlie Songhurst, Adam Ludwin, Devon Gundry, Ryan Smith, and Rop Gonggrijp.
在2016年夏天,非公开融资包括以下投资人:Aaron Grieshaber, Branson Bollinger, Maple Ventures (Amir Chetrit and Steven Nerayoff), Brian Cartmell, Vlad Zamfir, Roger Ver, Digital Currency Group, Barry Silbert, Charles Songhurst, Fenbushi, Shapeshift, Erik Voorhees, David Lee Kuo Chuen, Fred Ehrsam, Sebastian Serrano, and 李笑来.


我们的团队包括发明Zerocash协议的科学家,在开放隐私技术方面拥有专业知识的工程师和支持者,在比特币,以太坊,和学术界的领导顾问以及知名的投资人。请查看 团队页面 了解详细信息.


Zcash基金会是符合所有用户利益来维护和改进Zcash协议的非盈利性实体。它会收到 1.44% 的 Zcash 代币(四年内),用于支持所需开展的工作。基金会将收到的1.44%的代币(在四年内),以用来支持这项工作,这要归功于一些股东承诺捐赠出创始人奖励份额的一部分。
阅读我们对Zcash基金会的公告 博文

如果 Zcash数字货币为交易提供隐私,那么坏人不会使用它吗?

有关我们价值观的更多描述,请参阅 你好世界博文.


我们的基本哲学是自愿性. 目前,Zcash公司(CEO:Zooko Wilcox)正在有效地领导科学,协议和参考客户端的发展,以及公共通信及其他重要任务的发展。从长远来看,新建立的Zcash基金会将接管这些任务,特别是在教育,消费者保护和科学进步方面。目前他们他们打算继续让Zcash公司继续做它该做的事情。



Zcash 货币总量与比特币相同,总共发行 2100万Zcash货币单位 (ZEC, 或 ⓩ) 随着时间推移完成挖矿。确它是类似于比特币的稀缺货币,它能够在全球方位内与其他数字货币或法币在交易所进行交易,或者进行线下交易。
10%挖矿奖励将分发给Zcash公司的股份持有者 — 包括创始人,投资者,员工和顾问。我们称之为“创始人奖励”。 有关奖励分配的更多信息,请参阅 资金,激励和管理的博文。


当前,我们知道矿工验证每一笔交易,每一笔交易的的验证都随着零知识证明产生,它与货币总量的守恒并不矛盾。(即证明从交易中出来的钱 ≤ 进入这笔交易的钱)。
这个推理依赖于零知识证明的正确性。如果有人可以让矿工接受创造新资金的交易 - 如果您可以以某种方式伪造零知识证明或打破挖矿中的零知识验证软件,那么您可以伪造货币。
我们正在研究未来可以记录所有ZEC存在的方式。请关注我们的博客 来了解关于这个主题的提议。


所有币的10% 最终归归创始人。创始人奖励会在挖矿开始的前四年递增式的发放,为创始人提供持续的激励和资源来提升币的价值。不像其他预挖矿或者使用 ICO发行的代币,这样的模型几乎没有给创始人机会进行哄抬股价或逢高卖出。


资助 Zcash 的投资者将收到总量的 1.65% 。Zcash创始人,员工,和顾问将收到总计的 5.72% 。
在创始人奖励中,两个最大的受益者是“Zcash 公司战略储备” 将收到 1.19% ,非盈利的Zcash基金会将收到 1.44%。战略储备基金将资助新项目来提高Zcash公司的价值,基金会将从用户角度现在和未来维护和改进 Zcash协议
。 阅读更多 持续的资助和透明性.


我 (Zooko) 不这样叫它,因为它不是“预先”。(同时也不是挖矿)。同样,与典型的“预挖”不同,Zcash的创始人奖励是透明的,同时会激励创造者和系统的用户。

有哪些支持Zcash的交易所 ?



没人能够知道买家和卖家为什么选择他们选择的价格。一个值得牢记的事实是,Zcash在发布后数量非常有限,具体请看 这里。比如,在 10月29 日(区块链发行后的第二天) 仅有 450个代币, 10月31 日时有1950个。有一个我们可以确定的是这些与创始人奖励无关。创始人奖励的币会在前四年内逐渐分发,并且没任何一个在12 月21 号之前被分发,关于细节可参见 这里 同样您可以在区块链上这里查询。


有没有在线的Zcash 社区?

有的!特别是我们的官方社区 论坛 社区管理的开发者聊天室


您可能会找到一些Zcash爱好者和交易者在本地的数字货币线下聚会的活动。 如果您正在考虑或有兴趣在您的社区组织Zcash线下聚会,请联系我们,我们期待您的加入![email protected]




零知识证明是加密领域的科学突破:它们允许您在不泄露信息的情况下证明隐藏信息的一些事实。 允许数据的可验证性和隐私性的属性使得在各种交易中成为强有力的用例,并且我们将该概念集成到用于加密发件人地址,收件人地址和交易数量的区块链中。加密交易数据(私有)和缺乏零知识证明的区块链也缺乏对所有交易都有效的保证。这是因为网络中的节点无法确定发送者是否有这些币,或者先前将其发送给了其他人,或者从来就没有过。 网络节点无法验证这些加密数据。
在Zcash,我们使用一种特定类型的零知识证明,称为zk-SNARKs(或称为“零知识简明非交互式知识论”)。在Zcash交易中,可能存在一个发送方提供的数据串 - “零知识证明”-以及加密的交易数据,这些数据证明了加密数据的密码属性,包括除非发送方拥有支出密钥的所有权,并且输入和输出值相等,否则无法生成字符串。证明还保证产生了唯一的废弃,用其标记当这些货币实际花费了的时候来标记这些币已花费。这允许验证交易是有效的,同时保证交易细节的隐私。

Zerocoin, Zerocash, Zcash和ZEC的区别是什么?

Zerocoin是由Ian Miers, Christina Garman, Matthew Green和 Aviel D. Rubin 于2013年发明的加密货币协议。Zerocash 是由Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, 和 Madars Virza 于2014年发明的改进的加密货币协议。Zcash是Zerocash协议的实现,如我们的协议规范所描述的一些改进(所有设计Zerocash协议的所有科学家都是Zcash团队的成员)。我们采用ZEC作为Zcash货币的非正式三字母货币代码,ⓩ作为其货币符号。


Zcash不会:为多重签名加密数据,防范与公开交易相关的交易(例如,当Zcash与另一个加密货币交易时)或混淆IP地址。 可以将其与诸如Tor之类的匿名网络一起使用,以便获得对交易隐私补充的网络窃听的保护。
应该指出的是,虽然Zcash为很多用户提供匿名服务,但我们更倾向使用“隐私”来描述Zcash技术目标。虽然范围相关,但这些术语有微妙的差异。匿名性涉及到删除公共数据相关的个人标识符,例如给执法发送匿名提示或在抗议活动时佩戴面具。隐私认为数据本身需要保护,例如私人会议期间的讨论以及更相关的,信息加密 - 无论是保持个人的信息还是只与选择的人分享。 匿名方法可以增强隐私目标,例如防御对私人数据的有针对性的攻击,反之亦然比如受保护的数据与个人身份信息有关。在Zcash隐私交易中的数据加密与后者一致,因为它首先是用来保护财务隐私的工具,并且增加了匿名性的附加益处。
有关Zcash匿名属性的更多信息,请参见 Zcash如何与具有匿名属性的其他加密货币进行比较?




是的。 Zcash基于同行评审的Zerocash协议,该协议在2014年的IEEE安全和隐私会议上发布。 Zerocash论文提供了规范的详细技术概述。我们对于这一协议的修改(还没有)同行审阅,但它们在我们的协议描述中被全面描述和证明。这些改变也正在受到若干独立安全审计的审阅。




是的,我们已经不同程度地探索了所有这些想法。 我们现在正在做的是以最简单的方式来使Zcash成为一个真正的,运行的,永久的价值交换和价值存储的媒介的事,那就是创建一个单独的区块链。


虽然我们不能为建议投资者去哪里投注,但Zcash区块链为用户提供隐私的,去中心化的付款方法现在。此外,Zcash团队将努力确保任何此类在以太坊上改进同时 有利于Zcash用户,反之亦然。
当被问到这个问题时,以太坊的Vitalik Buterin说到Zcash可以更容易地用开发权衡来优化zk-SNARKs的使用。

从比特币的设计中做了哪些改变? 保留了比特币网络的哪些部分?


  • 我们采用了基于DigiShield v3的“平滑”难度调整算法。
  • 我们采用了内存难题的工作证明,Equihash,它涉及到添加一个要在有效区块中解决的内存难题。
  • 我们将块区间目标从10分钟改为2.5分钟,修改其他常数以保证约2100万币的货币基础和减半间隔4年。
  • 我们将区块大小限制增加到2MB。
  • 在第一个减半之前的头4年,我们要求coinbase交易包含创始人奖励P2SH的地址。
  • 我们要求coinbase交易支出输出不包含“透明”输出(vout应为空)。
  • 我们已经删除比特币中软分叉激活规则,并把它们设置为默认启用。

Zcash与传统的Bitcoin基础设施一起嵌入了秘密的价值转移方案; 在大多数情况下,它只是为现有的基元添加了额外的功能。
有关详细细节,请查看我们的的'比特币共识更改' 部分的协议规范


如常见问题解答中所述Zcash是否可以完全匿名交易?Zcash隐私交易中的加密数据和“隐私”一词更为一致,因为它首先是金融隐私的工具,同时有增加匿名性的附加值。 也就是说,在匿名可以防御有针对性的私人数据攻击的情况下,在旧金山可以支付私人医疗程序的200万人中的一人也比是3人之一但其中两人住在世界的另一边好。这个集合的大小是重要的,而与Zcash相比,其他加密货币用于匿名的混合策略相对较小。这并不是说这些其他的方法是毫无价值的,两者之间有权衡,但Zcash在交易隐私方面有明显的优势,因此匿名方面也有明显优势。
如果您想避免公司以公共区域链数据为基础去对人们(特别是那些为取得如精神病学,药物康复等个人服务而付款的人)建立档案,Zcash可以帮助您。 隐私地址与系统中所有其他隐私地址是无法区分的。.

SNARK公开参数是什么?Zcash 仪式是如何安全的生成SNARK参数的?

我们设计了一个过程,产生公众参数的工作拆分给不同的人,每个人在我们所说的Zcash仪式期间产生了这个参数的一部分。然后将这些合并在一起并创建公共参数。 只要参与产生参数的其中一人摧毁了手中的“有毒废物”,就无法颠覆参数。


不会,即使攻击者完全击破了了Zcash仪式,他们无法击破Zcash隐私地址。隐私地址仅受数学(现代加密学)的保护,并且隐私不依赖于其他任何东西。 (另一方面,这样的攻击者可能会伪造Zcash,请参阅常见问题"SNARK公开参数是什么?"

隐私地址有哪些功能? 局限性又有哪些?

隐私地址 (以 “z” 开头的地址) 是Zcash提供加密的发送人,接收人,余额和备注栏的重要元素。在我们加密设计的介绍中引入了一些使用上的局限性,也许熟悉加密货币的人已经注意到。当前 Zcash 客户端的一项局限性是花费输出的局限性:对于那些有一个或多个隐私地址的交易,他们只能有一个共输入 (但是输出没有限制)。再者,隐私地址有更高的资源需求 (RAM) 并且不支持多重签名技术。随着时间推移,我们都会改进这些局限性,并且会在我们的版本升级公告 中解释升级的部分 。
想要了解更多关于隐私地址的技术细节,请查看我们的博客文章 如果在隐私地址之间转账 ,想要了解更多关于资源需求的问题,请查看 用户对于Sprout计划的期待第2部分:软件可用性和硬件需求

Zcash用户中仅有一小部分使用隐私地址吗? 有没有人使用Zcash的隐私功能?

Since some third-party wallets only support transparent addresses, we're seeing an effect on the number of shielded addresses in use. While the ratio has been steadily improving since launch, we expect the number to increase even faster over the future as we continue to improve usability of shielded addresses.
Here is a table showing the number of shielded and unshielded transactions per hour/day/week/month. And here are historical stats about shielded and unshielded transactions in the most recent 100 blocks over the life of the blockchain so far (about 6 months).
Note that a big part of the shielded addresses used are due to the consensus rule requirement of coinbases to be shielded when first spent. This was in order to provide a guaranteed privacy-set. If you make a shielded Zcash transaction today there is actually a very large privacy-set of possible previous transactions which could be inputs to your transaction.
In the long run we intend to improve the functionality of Zcash shielded addresses and to deprecate Zcash transparent addresses, so that all transactions are shielded and so that the user experience is simpler.





跟比特币一样,Zcash是由挖矿产生的加密货币,这意味着每次区块添加到Zcash区块链时,都将创建新的ZEC。新的区块大约每150秒产生一个 (2.5 分钟)。货币供应曲线将镜像比特币的,除了因为Zcash出的区块是比特币的4倍,因此每个Zcash区块创建的ZEC数量将是每个比特币区块创建的BTC数量的四分之一。Zcash发布后的前几周将是一个“慢启动”的阶段。

Zcash是基于工作量证明吗? 使用什么挖矿算法? 它是否耐ASIC?

Yes, since launch, Zcash has been based on proof-of-work. Maybe the community will choose to change it to proof-of-stake or something someday. We cannot predict what the community or communities will ultimately decide about such things but are very much open to improvement and evolution.
We are currently using Equihash as the proof-of-work for block mining in Zcash. Equihash is a proof-of-work algorithm devised by Alex Biryukov and Dmitry Khovratovich. It is based on a computer science and cryptography concept called the Generalized Birthday Problem. Please read the Why Equihash blog post for more details.
The algorithm is currently not economically implementable in ASIC. We’re still evaluating whether we think it will resist custom hardware (“ASIC”) implementation long-term.


2.5 分钟 (150秒)

每个区块将产出多少个 ZEC ?

在慢启动挖矿阶段结束后,每个区块将产出12.5 个ZEC。每4年(或 840,000 个区块被挖出后),ZEC 的产出将减半(从12.5个到6.25个,到3.125个,到1.5625个等等)。
查看问题什么是慢启动挖矿? 来了解慢启动挖矿的具体细节。




Sol/s测量Equihash解决方案的速率。 这些解决方案中的每一个都针对当前目标进行测试(添加到区块头部和哈希运算之后),与比特币相同,每个随机变量都针对目标进行测试。 这就是我们所说的Sol/s === H/s - 他们测量相同的东西,而且是大家都已经用于其他PoW算法的测量标准。




问问题最佳的地方是我们的 社区论坛。当我们意识到常见问题时,我们会在本文档中增加。

Notice: Network Upgrade Overwinter will activate at block 347500, to be mined 2018-06-25 12:00 UTC-04:00 assuming 150 seconds/block